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In Defense of Lighter Fluid

Charcoal lighter fluid is the big no-no of barbecue. It offers convenience and a bad aftertaste and yet remains the most popular way to start your cookouts. The people at Kingsford Charcoal tell you not to use it and then sell it by the tanker full. It has warning labels that talk of birth defects, reproductive harm, and carbon monoxide poisoning. Not to mention the fire hazards. So before you light up your next BBQ, let’s look at the history of charcoal lighter fluid. Let’s see how we got here, why it’s so popular, and what the solution is.

Charcoal Lighter Fluid
Charcoal Lighter Fluid

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Smog and Lighter Fluids

In 1989, as part of its efforts to curb smog in the greater Los Angeles area, the South Coast Air Quality Management District (AQMD) proposed a complete ban on the sale of charcoal lighter fluid and self-lighting charcoal. In 1990, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), published an environmental impact statement on the levels of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) released by the evaporation and combustion of charcoal lighter fluids. VOCs are virtually any organic compound that turns to a gaseous state at room temperature. They can be anything from the smell of bacon to cancer-causing or poisonous substances. The EPA found that some 46,500 tons of charcoal lighter fluid were used in the United States every year. This produced 14,500 tons of VOCs in the atmosphere.

Photoreactive VOCs are a leading cause of nonattainment ozone, more commonly known as smog.

The industry agreed to reformulate these products to avoid a potential ban on charcoal lighter fluid and self-lighting charcoal. And the new “odorless” lighter fluid became available in 1992. Since then, all charcoal lighter fluid has to meet the standards of AQMD Rule 1174. If you pick up a bottle of lighter fluid at the store, it will clearly state that it does so. Since 1992 there has been no further regulation of lighter fluid. And no large-scale study has been done on its impact on pollution or health effects even though the EPA recommended it.

Charcoal Chimneys to the Rescue

What both AQMD and the EPA recommended wasn’t the reformulation of charcoal lighter fluid but the use of alternative methods of lighting a charcoal grill. These reports recommended that grillers use either a charcoal chimney, electric charcoal starter, or solid or gel lighters. Since then, the charcoal chimney has become the starter of choice on TV shows, barbecue cookbooks, and all across the internet.

Touted as a clean, virtually pollution-free alternative to lighter fluid, the charcoal chimney became the accessory of choice for many. The most recognized name in charcoal grills, Weber sells and advocates the chimney. Big Green Egg, like all Kamado grill makers, emphatically states never to use lighter fluid. Instead recommends solid starter cubes (paraffin-doused paper blocks).

Charcoal Lighting Alternatives

Weber Charcoal Chimney

Weber Charcoal Chimney
Weber Charcoal Chimney

Looft Lighter

Looft Lighter
Looft Lighter

Masterbuilt Fire Starters

Masterbuilt Fire Starters
Masterbuilt Fire Starters

Addicted to Lighter Fluid

More than two decades of consumer education turning grillers away from lighter fluid have elapsed. How did we do? In 1988 the Barbecue Industry Association (BIA), reported that nearly 70% of charcoal grills were lit with lighter fluid and that 15% of grillers chose self-lighting charcoal. Today, 50% of charcoal fires are lit with lighter fluid, and 17% use self-lighting charcoal. In the past 20 years, according to HPBA, sales of self-lighting charcoal have increased 140%. Sales of charcoal lighter fluid have also increased. Charcoal grill sales have remained largely unchanged over this period. But people are grilling more and over a larger portion of the year.

Consumer education and the recommendations of almost all authorities on the subject have done little to change people’s habits. While more people are using alternative methods to light their charcoal, the growth in popularity has not reduced the consumption of petroleum-based lighter fluids. Dedication to lighter fluids is so strong that a 1990 BIA survey showed that nearly 5% of users would switch to gasoline if necessary(1).

In part because of the fear of more dangerous flammable liquids used as a replacement, charcoal lighter fluid was reformulated to reduce the pollution created by its use. The final estimate of VOC emissions by AQMD before reformulation was .035 pounds per grill ignition. After reformulation, charcoal lighter fluids could emit no more than .02 pounds of pollutants per typical use. Reformulation reduced pollution created by lighter fluid by less than 45%. Of course, there was controversy about the numbers, and the idea of typical use is suspect, but all in all, Rule 1174 has had a positive effect on air pollution and produced a safer lighter fluid.

A Bad Taste in Your Mouth

The problem, however, runs much deeper than simply air pollution. A study commissioned by Smarter Starter Fluid, EMSL Analytic, found that compounds innate to petroleum-based lighter fluids were transferred to foods after only 10 minutes. Cooking over a charcoal fire started with lighter fluid.

Charcoal lighter fluid has a bigger problem than the pollution it creates or the chemicals it deposits in food. It is consistently listed as one of the most dangerous substances in the average home, and that danger is more than just being a flammable liquid. Petrochemical lighter fluids are distillate solvents that absorb through the body on contact, whether it is by touching the liquid or inhaling the evaporative or combusted fumes. These substances are linked to respiratory distress, neurological and kidney damage, as well as dozens of fatal poisonings. Warnings about storage and handling of lighter fluid are downright frightening.

Before anyone gets the wrong idea, I am not advocating the end of charcoal.

I am a staunch and ardent supporter of charcoal cooking. I believe that there should be more to outdoor cooking than simply the novelty of cooking out of doors. Charcoal provides authentic flavor and experience, from building the fire to grilling the food. But two facts must be acknowledged. First, most people are not going to turn away from self-lighting charcoal or charcoal lighter fluids. Second, lighter fluid is the fastest and easiest way to light charcoal and the method most preferred by the average backyard cook.

A Better Lighter Fluid

It doesn’t have to be this way, however. There are alternatives. Charcoal lighter fluid and chemicals used in self-lighting charcoal are flammable liquids with certain characteristics of combustion and evaporation. Any liquid with similar characteristics will serve the same function allowing the ease of use that most people want when lighting charcoal. Not only is it possible to produce a biofuel alternative, they already exist and are being sold today.

Biofuel lighter fluids are made from a combination of plant oils and alcohol. Some use a biodiesel base that is distilled from waste cooking oils, while others use low-grade cooking oils that don’t pass muster for consumption. Regardless of the recipe, these alternatives are all-natural. They impart virtually no flavor to foods, produce very few fumes, and are not poisonous if consumed. I have tested some of the products on the market and find them effective as lighter fluid and very clean when burnt. There are also self-lighting charcoals that use paraffin or other natural accelerants to light the charcoal. Natural self-lighting charcoal is still rare but does hold promise.

The advantages of biofuel lighter fluids are more than being non-toxic and clean burning. These biodegradable liquids produce less than half the VOCs of petroleum-based equivalents. They also need no special disposal rules or carry instructions that suggest if spilled to be careful of slipping. After more than three decades of attempting to convince backyard cooks to abstain from petroleum-based lighter fluids, we must admit that these efforts have failed. Charcoal lighter fluid is too convenient and readily available. Converting the supply of lighter fluid from petroleum to plant-based products will help to make barbecue a safer, cleaner, and healthier activity. It will also help keep it from falling again into the spotlight of regulators. This switch will help to protect barbecue for future generations.

Natural Lighter Fluids

Smarter Starter

Smarter Starter Charcoal Lighter Fluid
Smarter Starter Charcoal Lighter Fluid

Royal Oak Natural

Royal Oak Natural Lighter Fluid
Royal Oak Natural Lighter Fluid

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